Sub-theme 2. Commons towards urban transformation
Green cover, urban development, waste management
Unscientific urban expansion, zero urban planning, zero waste management and negligible efforts to reduce energy consumption is posing a serious threat to urban living ecosystem. Consumerism has led to spurt of production which demands energy leading to waste at the end and redemand for new products. Zero awareness about managing waste from source till end prevails in citizens as well as administrators. Nexus between govt and businessman exploit land resource leading to loss of green cover. Legal system is too poor to address environmental issues in India. Ultimately, if leaders are correct, from Central till ground level(panchayat), then the ecological crisis can be managed efficiently.
1. Decentralisation, Space and Waste Management in Municipalities in India
Birla Institute of Technology & Science, Pilani, Hyderabad Campus, India
Solid waste management, a big concern in developing countries, has been a challenge for municipal authorities in cities due to the increasing generation of waste, and the inability to enable a complete functioning system to manage waste disposal (Guerreroa, Maas & Hogland, 2013). Waste management and sanitation being a very significant issue in India has been the talking point in the last few years. Not very long ago in 2016, the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change of the Government of India updated the rules and regulations of waste management and replaced the existing “Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 2000” (Ministry of Environment and Forests, 2000) with the new “Solid Waste Management Rules, 2016” (Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, 2016). The new rules were focused on segregation at sources, waste processing and treatment, promotion of composting and waste-to-energy, all monitored by a Central Monitoring Committee yearly and various state & district level authorities on a more regular basis. “Solid Waste Management Rules, 2016” has also listed out and acknowledged the role of waste pickers, both authorized and informal and has also delegated responsibilities to various other ministries and local government authorities – ULBs, Panchayats, District Collectors, PCBs, etc. (Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, 2016). This study looks at decentralisation, space and waste management in Municipal governments in India using a case study method.
2. From Waste to Resource: Towards an Information Commons of waste pickers in the Delhi-NCR
1Independent Researcher, India, 2Ambedkar University, Delhi, India
Urban Waste Management in India is a layered activity involving State/Municipal actors, private operators and informal workers. Waste pickers, do much more than “pick” waste. Indeed, the role between a “picker” and a “collector” has many activities in common and is seen as overlapping. As front-line workers they sort the waste into separate categories/qualities selling them to larger aggregators/players, thereby kicking off the waste life-cycle.
This effort makes the case for an “Information Commons” where identifying, collating and sharing information acts as the binding glue that empowers the community.
It is based on the following premises, first that a lack of micro, local/grass roots level participation in the planning process renders the waste management process less effective. Secondly, individual waste-pickers, depending on the volume of sorted waste they can stock/produce, are often at a disadvantaged position in negotiating better prices from buyers. Lastly, while the equipment and technologies involved in waste recycling and disposal form an essential part of the process, timely information or its lack plays a critical role at different stages in the waste life cycle.
Collecting the information regarding the quantity of different categories of waste “produced” by the waste pickers in an area, along with other relevant information such as the current market rate and the location of the buyers can help in negotiating better selling prices. A preliminary study suggests that mobile devices may be used to get this relevant information to and from waste pickers, empowering them to better earn their livelihoods.
3. Sanitation Systems and Helath Risks in the City of Cotonou (Republic of Benin)
1University of Abomey-Calavi (UAC), Benin, 2Territorial Planning, Environment and Sustainable Development Laboratory (LATEDD), Benin
This research addresses the issue of urban change in relation to sanitation systems and the associated risks from the example of the city of Cotonou. The objective of this research is to contribute to better waste management in the city of Cotonou. Data collection was based on questionnaires, interviews, and direct observations based on the seasonality of population behaviors. The results obtained show that the city of Cotonou is experiencing strong population growth and socioeconomic and environmental changes. This situation leads to an increase in the need for energy, water and materials; therefore, an increase in the production of solid, liquid and excreta waste and, consequently, hygiene and sanitation problems. In addition, 62.5% of households do not subscribe to a pre-collection structure and continue to dispose of refuse in the wild, as well as domestic wastewater for 85.71%. Similarly, 25% of households do not have latrines and defecate in the wild. This poor picture aggravates the pollution of the environment and exposes the populations to the hydrofecal risk with as corollary malaria (91.07%), cholera (16.07%), diarrhea (30.35%), and dysenteries (33.92%). Awareness-raising activities can contribute to a change in behaviour and improve the living conditions of these populations.
Key words: Bénin, Cotonou, urban changes, sanitation, health risk.